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Drug and Alcohol Rehab Devon

Learn about drug and alcohol rehab and detox in Devon. The rehab clinic offers a robust admissions process and supervised detox and evidence-based treatments.

    Drug and Alcohol Rehab Devon

    Are you a social drinker or casual drug user? Is your consumption of drugs and/or alcohol getting out of hand? Or perhaps you suffer from a history of alcoholism or drug addiction?

    No matter what your circumstances may be, you can be assured Rehab Recovery is on hand to transfer you to a place where you no longer rely on drugs or alcohol to ‘get through your day.

    Rehab Recovery offers a range of addiction treatments in Devon that are designed to secure your long-term recovery from drug and alcohol use.

    Call our helpful, friendly team today on 0800 088 66 86

    Relevant stats about addiction

    Drug Addiction Statistics [1]

    If you’re struggling with drug addiction, then here are some useful statistics.

    With more and more people experimenting with drugs, it’s now believed that one in every eleven adults (aged between 16 and 59) have tried at least one drug in the past 12 months [1].

    The younger the individual, the more likely they’ve tried at least one form of drug, as one in every five individuals is believed to have taken a drug in the past 12 months.

    This includes drugs such as cannabis, cocaine, heroin and other drugs ranging in classifications from Class A, Class B and Class C.

    Although lots of people consume Class C drugs casually, it is now believed that 3.4% of all adults in the UK have admitted to consuming at least one Class A drug in the past 12 months [1].

    Class A drugs are extremely dangerous and harmful to the body, and if you are found in possession of a Class A drug then you might be fined or prosecuted.

    This statistic increases the younger the individual, with 7.4% of all individuals aged 16–24-year-olds admitting to consuming at least one Class A drug over the last year.

    Lots of people might believe that these statistics mainly represent people who are simply experimenting with drugs, consuming them once and then never again.

    Nevertheless, this isn’t true.

    In fact, 2.1% of adults in the UK (aged between 16 and 59) have admitted to consuming drugs frequently. The younger you are, the more this statistic increases with 4.3% of all individuals aged 16-24 having admitted to doing the same.

    Alcohol Addiction Statistics [2,3]

    Likewise, if you’re struggling with an addiction to alcohol, then it’s important to understand the statistics around alcohol addiction.

    The WHO (World Health Organisation) carried out a study that revealed that approximately 3 million people die from alcohol abuse every year across the world [2]. That is a statistic that nobody can ignore.

    In addition to this statistic, between the years 2018 and 2019, a total of 358,000 people were admitted to the hospital due to their addiction to alcohol.

    Due to the media, lots of people believe that young people consume the most alcohol out of all age demographics.

    However, this is not true.

    The NHS carried out a study and found that it is actually individuals aged between 55 and 64 who consumed the most alcohol on a weekly basis in the UK.

    It’s statistics like this that make professionals in the industry increasingly concerned about drug and alcohol addiction. More and more people are experimenting with drugs and alcohol.

    If you’re currently experimenting with drugs or alcohol, or if you’re growing increasingly worried about your addiction or a loved one, then it’s time to seek help.

    You should seek help from healthcare professionals as soon as you can.

    Rehab Recovery can help you get the right kind of help for your addiction. Our friendly and helpful team are on hand to give you the best advice.

    Don’t become another statistic, speak to us at Rehab Recovery today.

    The disease model of addiction

    If you’re suffering from a drug or alcohol addiction in the Devon area, then you should understand the disease model of addiction.

    The disease model of addiction believes that addiction is a disease and not a moral failing. Therefore, it’s not the individual’s fault that they are addicted.

    Due to this, if you’re struggling with an addiction then you are not capable of controlling your abuse and consumption.

    The disease model of addiction also highlights that if you’re struggling from an addiction then it can only ever be treated by detoxing and withdrawing from the drug whilst maintaining sober for the rest of your life.

    If you follow this model, then you’re likely to start seeing addiction as a health issue rather than a moral failing, which is helpful when aiding recovery.

    If you’re struggling with an addiction, then do not blame yourself. Seeing your addiction as a disease in this way, it will remove any form of shame you’re currently experiencing.

    Call our helpful, friendly team today on 0800 088 66 86

    Dual diagnosis

    Addiction is often simply a symptom of a deeper, psychiatric issue. If you struggle with an addiction whilst also suffering from a psychiatric issue, then you will be said to have a dual diagnosis.

    These underlying psychiatric issues include mental health issues such as anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression or paranoia.

    It’s often difficult to determine which comes first, as some people might develop a mental health issue after they become addicted to a substance.

    If you want to attend a drug or alcohol rehab centre in the Devon area, then speak to a member of the Rehab Recovery team today.

    By doing so, you can be confident that you will be treated professionally for any mental health issues alongside your addiction.

    Once you first enter rehab, your addiction will be treated with a physical detox. After that, any mental health disorders will be treated.

    Treatment for mental health disorders include forms of therapy such as CBT, Motivational interviewing, and group therapy.

    Abstinence

    Abstinence is defined as having self-controlled restraint. It is when you actively stop yourself from indulging in activities that give you some form of pleasure.

    If you attend a rehab centre for a drug or alcohol addiction in the Devon area, then your aim will be to achieve complete abstinence, rather than temporarily stopping your consumption.

    Therefore, your time at rehab will be mostly spent on achieving abstinence.

    Reducing your intake of an addictive substance simply is not enough to fully recover.

    By achieving complete abstinence, you will gain better sleep, improved memory and better overall physical and mental wellbeing.

    Call our helpful, friendly team today on 0800 088 66 86

    The benefits of residential drug and alcohol rehab Devon

    If you attend a rehab centre in the Devon area, then you will receive a whole host of benefits, including the following.

    The Best Environment

    By attending residential rehab, you will be placing yourself in the best possible environment to recover.

    You will be surrounded by other individuals who are also hoping and trying to recover, as well as healthcare professionals who will also motivate you.

    Removed from any Temptations

    In addition to this, you will be removing yourself from any temptations that might exist at home or during your daily, normal life and routine. These could include friends, family members, places or actual exposure to the addictive substance.

    Time to Reflect

    By giving yourself some time away from your daily life, a lot of emphases will be placed on reflecting on your addiction and day to day life. You will be given the opportunity to reflect on the past, present and future as well as your long term recovery plans.

    24/7 Care and Support

    By attending residential rehab in the Devon area, you will receive 24/7 care and medical support from professionals.

    Top of the Range Treatment

    In addition to these many benefits, by attending residential rehab in the Devon area, you will receive the very best treatment possible. You will be assessed upon arrival, and given a personalised treatment plan that caters for your needs.

    Private Rehab vs. Council Funded rehab treatment

    Lots of people in the UK get confused when it comes to private and ‘NHS rehab.’ In reality, there is no such thing as NHS rehab, only NHS funded rehab.

    Unfortunately, due to cuts in the NHS, they are not able to provide NHS rehab centres, only NHS funded places and beds in private rehab centres.

    1. Cons of Private Rehab

    The biggest con of attending private rehab is that it is expensive. Read below for some more information on how much rehab costs.

    2. Pros of Private Rehab

    Whilst private rehab might be expensive, there are many pros to attending. For example, you will completely skip the waiting list which can sometimes take weeks, if not months.

    You will also receive top of the range treatment options, as well as a relapse prevention plan that will help you stay sober when you leave rehab.

    3. Cons of NHS Funded Rehab

    By attending NHS funded rehab, you will have to endure the long waiting list that can have you waiting up to months to receive treatment.

    You will also get less one to one time with healthcare professionals and might be treated for a mental health issue or dual diagnosis separately.

    4. Pros of NHS Funded Rehab

    The main benefit of receiving NHS funded rehab is that you will not have to pay for your time in rehab or your treatment.

    Additionally, you will likely be placed in a local rehab centre which means that you will still be close to friends or family members.

    Call our helpful, friendly team today on 0800 088 66 86

    Why residential rehab is NOT for everyone

    Whilst there are a whole host of benefits to attending residential rehab, unfortunately, it is not for everyone.

    In fact, you might only be deemed suitable for residential rehab if you meet the following criteria.

    • If you suffer from suicidal thoughts or have in the past
    • If you drink more than thirty units every day
    • If you’ve tried to recover in the past multiple times but failed each time
    • If you suffer from a significant mental health condition
    • If you’ve ever been violent whilst drunk or on drugs
    • If you suffer from Wernicke’s Encephalopathy or delirium tremens

    The DSM-IV-TR also has a list of diagnostic criteria that is also used by professionals to assess whether or not someone is suitable for residential rehab.

    • If you have continued to abuse the substance for a long period of time, despite understanding the harm it is doing to your body
    • If you have an extremely high tolerance
    • If you have continued to abuse the drug for a long period of time to avoid any unpleasant withdrawal symptoms

    The alternatives to going to rehab

    SMART Meetings

    SMART group meetings are a fantastic alternative to attending residential rehab and will help you with your motivation to recover, ignoring and overcoming your cravings, triggers and any other negative emotions.

    AA or Narcotics Anonymous

    In addition to SMART meetings, there is also Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous. Both groups have been around for a very long time, so are very much tried and tested.

    They believe in the 12-step method, which gives you motivation, support and advice.

    Home Detox

    If group therapy just is not for you, then you should consider a home detox.

    By receiving a home detox, you will receive daily, one to one phone calls from healthcare professionals as well as personalised medication in the post.

    Al-Anon Family Group Meetings

    Group family meetings are also another form of alternative treatment. By attending meetings with your family, they will better understand your addiction whilst learning how to help you move forward.

    Outpatient Treatment Via a Local Drug & Alcohol Team in Devon

    If you’re unsure about residential rehab, then outpatient treatment might be for you.

    By attending outpatient treatment, you will be able to receive one to one, daily treatment and care from healthcare professionals whilst going home each day to live your normal, daily life.

    Call our helpful, friendly team today on 0800 088 66 86

    The admissions process for drug and alcohol rehab Devon

    When it comes to recovering from a drug or alcohol addiction in the Devon area, it’s important to understand the admissions process and criteria.

    The ASAM uses a range of factors and dimensions to determine if someone is suitable to be admitted into rehab [4].

    Dimension 1 – Detox History and Potential

    If you want to be admitted to a rehab centre in the Devon area, then it’s important for healthcare professionals to understand how likely it is that you’ll complete a detox programme.

    They will look at both your detox history and potential, by looking at how many times you’ve tried to detox in the past. This will help the team to determine what kind of treatment options are best for you.

    Dimension 2 – Physical Wellbeing

    Before you can be admitted to a rehab centre Devon, healthcare professionals will want to assess your physical wellbeing. They will want to know about any underlying physical health issues so that they can treat your detox and withdrawal symptoms properly and safely.

    Dimension 3 – Mental Wellbeing

    In addition to your physical health, your mental health will also be assessed. It’s important that you are assessed psychologically so that the team can provide you with the best therapy and treatment options.

    Dimension 4 – Your Commitment

    If you want to be admitted to a rehab centre in Devon, then you will need to be committed to the cause. On admission, this will also be assessed.

    Dimension 5 – Relapse History

    It’s also important that healthcare professionals are aware of any previous attempts to recover in the past and to understand whether or not you have ever relapsed.

    This is important to understand so that healthcare professionals can avoid any previously unsuccessful treatment options.

    Dimension 6 – Home Environment

    In order to ensure that you are able to remain sober when you leave rehab, the team will try to determine what your home environment looks like. This is because there are often a lot of unhelpful triggers at home.

    Once the professionals have assessed you on these six dimensions, your addiction will be categorised into a mild, moderate or severe addiction.

    If you resonate with two or three of the above dimensions, then it’s likely that you have a mild addiction.

    If you see yourself in four or five of them, then your addiction is moderate.

    If you see yourself in five or move of the above dimensions then it is believed that your addiction is severe.

    Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDITs)

    In addition to the above 6 dimensions, AUDIT’s are often used by healthcare professionals [5].

    An AUDIT consists of a total of ten questions that centre around your addiction. These questions include:

    • How many times in the last year have you craved alcohol or drugs in the morning?
    • How often have you regretted drinking in the last 12 months?
    • How often do you cancel your plans to consume the substance?
    • How often can you not remember the night before due to your consumption?
    • How many units of alcohol do you drink on a weekly basis?
    • Have you ever hurt yourself or other people whilst intoxicated with the addictive substance(s) in question?
    • How often do you drink more than 6 units if you’re a woman?
    • How often do you drink more than 8 units if you’re a man?
    • How often do you struggle to stop consuming the addictive substance?
    • Has a friend, family member or doctor ever expressed worry or concern about your addiction?

    In response to the above questions, you can answer in the five following way:

    • Never
    • Monthly or less
    • 2 – 4 times a month
    • 2 – 3 times a week
    • 4 or more times a week

    Each answer is numbered, and if you score 13 points or more you are believed to be dependent on the addictive substance [5].

    If this is the case, you should seek help from a professional.

    Call our helpful, friendly team today on 0800 088 66 86

    When is a professional Intervention needed?

    If you are a loved one of someone suffering from a drug or alcohol addiction, then it’s important that you understand what a professional intervention is and when it is needed.

    An intervention, in its simplest form, is a planned meeting with your loved one who’s struggling where you voice your concern and worries about their addiction.

    You should do so in a calm and relaxed manner, where the individual feels like you are there to help them, not attack them.

    On top of voicing your concern, you should also provide the individual with a list of treatment options.

    If you want to hold a calm, professional intervention then you should also consider involving an intervention specialist who can help guide and advise you.

    You should hold the intervention in a quiet, safe space where the loved one won’t feel embarrassed about discussing their addiction.

    You should also only involve individuals who know the individual well and who also have a vested interest in the individual’s wellbeing.

    It is also a great idea to read up on CRAFT, which stands for Community Reinforcement and Family Training.

    CRAFT advises families and loved ones on how to hold an intervention, whilst also providing a whole host of tips, strategies, and advice [6].

    How much does rehab cost in Devon?

    If you’re looking to attend a drug or alcohol rehab centre in the Devon area, then you should be aware of the associated cost of attending rehab.

    The cost of rehab depends on how long you stay there, as well as if you opt for a private or shared room.

    A 10-day programme in a single room costs between £3k and £6k, whereas a shared room is a lot cheaper, at £2k – £4k.

    If you stay for a longer period of time, say 28 days, then you should expect between £8k – £10k for a private room and £6k for a shared room.

    If these costs are too expensive for you, then you should speak to your doctor about receiving NHS funded rehab.

    Alternatively, you should also consider at-home rehab. This costs approximately £1.5k but is not as effective as attending residential rehab.

    Call our helpful, friendly team today on 0800 088 66 86

    Tips on how to choose the right rehab centre in Devon

    If you want to attend a rehab centre in the Devon area, then read the below tips. It’s important that you choose the right rehab centre for your needs.

    • Look for rehab centres that have been open a while
    • Look for rehab centres that have good reviews and testimonials
    • Speak to your doctor about what kind of treatment needs you will need and seek out rehab centres that have a good reputation for these treatment options
    • Read up on residential and outpatient rehab to understand the difference
    • Consider the costs carefully
    • Ask to speak to a member of the team to talk you through their process

    What is a detox, and do I need one?

    If you’re hoping to attend a rehab centre in the Devon area, then it is important that you understand what a detox is, and whether or not you need one.

    Detox is when an individual abstains from an addictive substance in an attempt to rid the body of that substance.

    If you’re addicted to a drug or alcohol, then you will most likely need to attend a detox programme before you can receive any other help or treatment, such as therapy.

    Detoxing and withdrawing from any addictive substance can bring with it some unpleasant side effects and symptoms. If these symptoms go unmanaged, then they can cause some serious health concerns.

    That is why it is really important to detox in a safe environment such as a rehab centre.

    Withdrawal symptoms include:

    • Excessive sweating
    • Excessive shaking
    • Anxiety
    • Paranoia
    • Severe feelings of agitation
    • Insomnia

    If you undergo your detox at a rehab centre, then it is likely that you will be medically assisted by Librium. Librium is a medication commonly prescribed to those struggling with withdrawal symptoms and anxiety.

    Call our helpful, friendly team today on 0800 088 66 86

    How long does rehab last?

    The length needed in rehab is different for each person.

    However, there is often a 7-day minimum stay for those undergoing detox from alcohol, and 28 days is also often recommended to then focus on your treatment, which includes things like therapy and relapse prevention planning.

    However, it’s important to remember that you might not need to attend a detox programme prior to your recovery treatment. This depends greatly on what type of substance you are addicted to.

    For example, if you are addicted to alcohol, opioids or benzos then you will need to undergo a detox first. However, if you’re addicted to cannabis or cocaine then you will not need to.

    This is because drugs like alcohol and opioids are physically addictive as well as mentally, whereas cocaine and cannabis is only mentally addictive.

    See below for more information on what types of drugs are physically and mentally addictive.

    Rehab for Cocaine in Devon

    Cocaine is a psychologically addictive drug.

    However, it is not physically addictive. Because of this, you will not need to attend a detox programme for an addiction to cocaine.

    However, you will still need to attend rehab for lengthy treatment and therapy so that you can overcome the physiologically addictive side of cocaine addiction.

    Rehab for Heroin rehab in Devon

    woman-drinking-coffee

    Unlike Cocaine, Heroin is both mentally and physically addictive. Therefore, you will need to undergo both a physical detox and mental rehab treatment plan.

    These treatment options will include therapy such as CBT, DBT, group and family therapy.

    Rehab for Cannabis in Devon

    group-fist-bumping

    If you are struggling with an addiction to cannabis in the Devon area, then you will need to attend rehab.

    However, as Cannabis is not physically addictive, you will not need to undergo medical detox.

    Your rehab for an addiction to cannabis will consist of therapy, including family therapy to help your family find ways to support you once you leave rehab.

    Call our helpful, friendly team today on 0800 088 66 86

    Talk about the types of therapies on offer in Devon

    hot-stone-massage

    The following forms of therapy target the psychiatric conditions as previously mentioned above. These treatment options are often provided in most rehab centres in the Devon area.

    Brief Interventions

    Brief interventions are commonly used by professionals to assess an individual’s addiction and ability to recover at home, without attending residential rehab.

    Holistic Therapies

    Holistic therapies are becoming increasingly popular in the Devon area. Holistic therapy includes activities stuff as exercise, meditation, walking, playing music, drawing or painting.

    Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

    CBT works to help reframe peoples thoughts and emotions into more helpful, positive and motivational ones.

    It also looks into the triggers and causes of your addiction, as well as any underlying mental health issues that might also be contributing to your addiction.

    Dialectical Behavioural Therapy

    DBT is very similar to CBT in that it works to solve the underlying triggers and causes of your addiction. However, DBT is used when an individual’s emotions are stronger than usual and issues are more complex.

    For example, DBT is commonly used for those suffering from a borderline personality disorder.

    Motivational Interviewing

    Motivational Intervention is a therapy technique used to uncover an individual’s natural motivation to change.

    Individual Therapy

    At every rehab centre, you will be given the opportunity to receive one to one therapy with a mental health professional.

    These therapy sessions are the time to assess whether or not there are any underlying triggers or causes.

    Group Therapy

    In addition to one-to-one therapy, you might be offered the chance to attend group therapy. This is often used when an individual feels confident enough to talk about their addiction in a group setting without the fear of being judged.

    Family Therapy

    Family therapy is often also used when an individual suffers from triggers at home. It is used to bring the family on board in an attempt to help them better understand their loved one’s addiction and how they can help upon their loved ones return home.

    Co-dependency Treatment

    It is now common for an individual to feel co-dependent on an individual, object or addictive substance. If you are co-dependent on an addictive substance, then it is also likely that you suffer from a sense of low self-esteem, self-worth and an inability to say no and create boundaries.

    Whilst at rehab, during therapy you will be assessed for co-dependency and will receive treatment in the form of CBT therapy to overcome this.

    Twelve-Step Facilitation Therapy (TSFT)

    Twelve Step Facilitation Therapy is a strategy and form of treatment used by healthcare professionals to encourage individuals to attend a 12-step self-help group once they leave residential rehab.

    These groups include the likes of the AA, who have a great track record of helping individuals who either don’t want to attend rehab or who are attending outpatient rehab.

    Call our helpful, friendly team today on 0800 088 66 86

    Techniques to include in your relapse prevention plan

    writing-in-journal

    1. IOE

    If you are planning a relapse prevention strategy and plan, then you should try to include a trusted individual who you can call upon in times of crisis. This is your ‘in case of emergency’ person.

    You should pick someone who’s helped you throughout your treatment and recovery, and someone who is reliable and easily contactable.

    2. Prioritising Self Care

    When you’re recovering from an addiction, self-care becomes more important than ever. Make sure that your relapse prevention plan allocates time each day to look after yourself and your mental health.

    Make sure that you relax each day, eat healthily, and do something that helps you achieve a state of ‘flow’ like reading or exercising.

    3. HALT

    HALT is a very popular technique when it comes to recovery. It stands for hungry, angry, lonely, and tired. If you start to experience a craving, check that you are not one of these four things first. You’ll often be pleasantly surprised.

    4. Meditation

    Meditation has become increasingly popular and normalised over the past decade. Meditation is a tried and proven way of relaxing and focussing the brain, two things that are incredibly important to a successful recovery plan.

    Treating the physical and psychological components of addiction

    couple-sitting-in-field

    If you suffer from an addiction to drugs or alcohol, effective treatment must address two broad issues. The first issue involves detoxification.

    When you become addicted to drugs and alcohol, your body becomes addicted to these substances due to chemical reactions occurring in the brain and throughout your central nervous system.

    When drug and alcohol use is suddenly halted, the brain re-adjusts to normality since drugs and alcohol no longer engage certain neurotransmitters.

    At first, this may sound like a positive development. However, the brain readjusts too quickly. This readjustment in brain chemistry also brings with it a range of dangerous withdrawal symptoms.

    Call our helpful, friendly team today on 0800 088 66 86

    Allowing you to detox comfortably and safely

    hands-holding-flower

    What is the solution to this problem? The answer is surprisingly simple. When you attend a drug or alcohol treatment facility Devon, you will first receive a psychiatric assessment.

    This assessment is conducted by a psychiatrist. If you didn’t know, a psychiatrist is a medical doctor.

    The psychiatrist will prescribe you medication designed to slow down the pace at which your brain readjusts following the cessation of drug and alcohol use.

    This medication prevents the onset of dangerous withdrawal symptoms such as tremors, hallucinations and a range of ‘flu-like’ symptoms.

    Your detox programme in Devon requires between 7-14 days to complete.

    The duration of your detox programme is determined by the severity and nature of your addiction. You will be advised on the recommended treatment duration before your admission goes ahead.

    Treating the mental aspect of addiction

    woman-doing-yoga

    The next issue to tackle during your drug and alcohol rehab treatment in Devon concerns the underlying psychological problems you may experience.

    These problems may be due to psychological trauma you experienced during your childhood.

    This trauma means a physical detox programme is seldom enough to secure your long-term recovery.

    If psychological trauma is not treated during your time at a Devon rehab clinic, the chances of you remaining in recovery once you return home are slim.

    Therapies we provide in Devon

    climbing-mountain-together

    To ensure the psychological component of addiction is sufficiently treated, we offer a range of modern therapy and counselling techniques. These include psychotherapy, cognitive behaviour therapy and cognitive mindfulness relapse prevention.

    We also rely on older but proven techniques such as the 12-step model.

    All therapy sessions fit into a highly structured programme. Each week, you receive a timetable telling you when and where therapy sessions take place within the rehab facility. This ensures you do not miss any therapy sessions.

    Therapy sessions are offered in group and one-to-one settings. You are also given a notebook to allow you to complete exercises alone. These exercises give you a solid basis to reflect upon during your time at a Devon drug and alcohol rehab centre.

    Call our helpful, friendly team today on 0800 088 66 86

    Aftercare sessions in Devon

    couple-hugging

    When your time at a Devon drug and alcohol rehab centre concludes, detailed aftercare and relapse prevention plan are drawn up based on the progress you have made during your treatment programme.

    Aftercare sessions are held once a week. This allows you to return to the Devon rehab centre on an outpatient basis for around 12 months following the conclusion of residential treatment.

    Requesting more information

    If you live in Bideford, Barnstaple, Crediton, Exeter, Okehampton, Plymouth, Cornwall, or Truro contact Rehab Recovery today on 0800 088 66 86. Alternatively, contact us through this website.

    References

    [1] https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/crimeandjustice/articles/drugmisuseinenglandandwales/yearendingmarch2020

    [2] https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/alcohol

    [3] https://digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/publications/statistical/statistics-on-alcohol/20

    [4] https://www.asamcontinuum.org/knowledgebase/what-are-the-six-dimensions-of-the-asam-criteria/

    [5] https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/684823/Alcohol_use_disorders_identification_test__AUDIT_.pdf

    [6] https://www.robertjmeyersphd.com/pdf/The%20Community%20Reinforcement%20Approach%20-%20History%20and%20New%20Directions.pdf

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